Donald A. Windsor

I am a biologist working on the important role of parasites in ecosystems. My flagship publication is:

Windsor, Donald A. Most of the species on Earth are parasites. International Journal for Parasitology 1998 December; 28(12): 1939-1941.

My working hypothesis is that parasitism is an inherent property of life. Everywhere in the universe that life exists there will be parasitism. I worry that our explorations of outer space will contaminate any extraterrestrial life and prevent my hypothesis from ever being tested.

Parasitism has 2-dimensions.

    1. Each free-living species hosts several parasitic species.

    2. Each parasitic species burdens several host species.

I call this 2-dimensional nexus a “biocartel”. Biocartels are basic units of evolution.  Evolution is the dynamic trajectory of these two dimensions as a function of time. All biocartels together form a massive interwoven texture that is our biosphere.

I operate the blog in which such concepts are explored.

To balance the theoretical with more earthy delights, I am also active in the archaeology of central New York State, where I live, and am a member of the New York State Archaeological Association. I operate the blog .

Local history is a keen interest of mine. I edit, and write for, the Journal of the Chenango County Historical Association and operate the blog I am a field historian who wanders around in the woods seeking remains of past human activity.

My employment career was spent working as an information scientist in pharmaceutical research and development. I retired in 1994 and have been living happily ever after.

I can be contacted at